Write a note on external structure of kidney

Over-the-counter OTC medications: A drug is not harmless simply because a person does not need a prescription to get it. In the nephron tubule, needed substances are reabsorbed back into the blood, while waste products and excess fluid are removed.

Parts of the kidney and their functions

These stones grow quickly and tend to get very large. Functions of Kidney: Endocrine functions: kidney is also an endocrine glands. Normally, it is impermeable to water and permeable to ions, driving the osmolarity of fluid even lower. It is composed of visceral simple squamous epithelial cells; inner and parietal simple squamous epithelial cells; outer layers. Figure 4. Nephrons and Vessels The renal artery first divides into segmental arteries, followed by further branching to form interlobar arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex Figure 3. The pyramids and renal columns taken together constitute the kidney lobes. Renin; It is an enzyme secreted by cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus which helps in regulation of blood pressure. The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver, the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen. A glomerulus is a ball-shaped cluster of capillaries that acts as a filter by allowing fluid and small waste substance to pass while preventing larger molecules blood cells, large proteins, etc. It can result in kidney failure. A usual blood test is for urea and electrolytes , known as a U and E. In automated peritoneal dialysis, the process occurs over time.

Aldosterone causes blood pressure to rise. The renal columns also serve to divide the kidney into 6—8 lobes and provide a supportive framework for vessels that enter and exit the cortex.

renal medulla function

Each kidney weighs about — g in males and — g in females. This is the peritoneum, and a protective membrane surrounds it.

Structure of nephron

A Nephron A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidneys that regulates water and soluble substances in the blood by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed, and excreting the rest as urine. Each kidney weighs about — g in males and — g in females. Renal pyramids consist of blood vessels and elongated portions of tube-like structures that collect filtrate. Her writing is featured in Kaplan AP Biology The renal arteries arise directly from the aorta, and the renal veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. Nephrons extend through the cortex and medulla areas of the kidneys. External Anatomy The paired kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs. The renal columns also serve to divide the kidney into 6—8 lobes and provide a supportive framework for vessels that enter and exit the cortex. Position: It is situated at the level of TL3. Regina Bailey is a science writer and educator who has covered biology for ThoughtCo since Because the kidney filters blood, its network of blood vessels is an important component of its structure and function. Nephron, Parts, and Histology The nephron of the kidney is involved in the regulation of water and soluble substances in blood. Afferent arteriole, and Chapter Review As noted previously, the structure of the kidney is divided into two principle regions—the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla. Sources: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy.

Upper portions of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs Figure 1. Kidney function of less than 10 to 15 percent is considered kidney failure and requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Write a note on external structure of kidney

The interlobar arteries, in turn, branch into arcuate arteries, cortical radiate arteries, and then into afferent arterioles. Resting on top of each kidney is an adrenal gland adrenal meaning on top of renal , which are involved in some renal system processes despite being a primarily endocrine organ. Birds have small glomeruli, but about twice as many nephrons as similarly sized mammals. In continuous peritoneal dialysis, the fluid drains through a catheter. Blood travels into the hemodialyzer, receives treatment, and then returns to the body. Afferent arteriole, and The majority of kidney stones are formed from excess deposits of calcium in urine. Key Terms renal medulla: The inner-most region of the kidney, arranged into pyramid-like structures, that consists of the bulk of nephron structure. A glomerulus is a ball-shaped cluster of capillaries that acts as a filter by allowing fluid and small waste substance to pass while preventing larger molecules blood cells, large proteins, etc. The left kidney is located at about the T12 to L3 vertebrae, whereas the right is lower due to slight displacement by the liver. This example results in increased blood volume and increased blood pressure. The two kidneys receive about 25 percent of cardiac output.

Proximal Convoluted Tubule The proximal tubule is the first site of water reabsorption into the bloodstream, and the site where the majority of water and salt reabsorption takes place. The kidney is mentioned in several biblical verses in conjunction with the heart, much as the bowels were understood to be the "seat" of emotion — grief, joy and pain.

Kidney system

Left Kidney. This filtrate is processed and finally gathered by collecting ducts that drain into the minor calyces, which merge to form the major calyces; the filtrate then proceeds to the renal pelvis and finally the ureters. Blood supply to kidney The renal artery enters the kidney through the hilum and then branches progressively to form the interlobar arteries arcuate arteries, interlobular arteries, and afferent arterioles, which lead to the glomerular capillaries. Some of the most common causes of kidney damage include: Analgesics: Using pain medication over a long period of time might result in chronic analgesic nephritis. Uric acid stones are far less common and are formed from undissolved uric acid crystals in acidic urine. Proximal Convoluted Tubule The proximal tubule is the first site of water reabsorption into the bloodstream, and the site where the majority of water and salt reabsorption takes place. Other animals In the majority of vertebrates, the mesonephros persists into the adult, albeit usually fused with the more advanced metanephros ; only in amniotes is the mesonephros restricted to the embryo. Causes Back pain is a symptom of kidney damage. Nephrons and Vessels The renal artery first divides into segmental arteries, followed by further branching to form interlobar arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex Figure 3. Key Terms renal medulla: The inner-most region of the kidney, arranged into pyramid-like structures, that consists of the bulk of nephron structure.

A nephron consists of a glomerulus, which is a cluster of capillaries, and a nephron tubule that is surrounded by an additional capillary bed.

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Gross Anatomy of the Kidney