The european witch hunt
She also repeated the erroneous statement, taken from the works of several German authors, that nine million people had been killed in the witch hunt.
Famous witch trials in europe
Hopkins' witch-hunting spree was brief but significant: convictions and deaths are attributed to his work. They did not know what caused disease and other natural phenomena and so they sometimes assumed there was a supernatural explanation. In Hungary people were not executed for witchcraft until the early 18th century when witch trials and executions were imposed by the Austrians. The Gutenberg printing press had only recently been invented along the Rhine River, and Kramer fully utilized it to shepherd his work into print and spread the ideas that had developed by inquisitors and theologians in France into the Rhineland. South African police inspector Matome Mamabolo reports: "If someone is accused of murdering a witch, the community tends to support them by supplying money for an advocate when the case comes to court. Early estimates tend to be highly exaggerated, as they were still part of rhetorical arguments against the persecution of witches rather than purely historical scholarship. As a result the witch hunt collapsed. Furthermore in some areas large numbers of people were tried as witches while in others few, if any, were. One form of this is that the prosecution of witches was a reaction to a disaster that had befallen the community, such as crop failure, war, or disease. The first to advance this theory was the German Professor of Criminal Law Karl Ernst Jarcke of the University of Berlin , who put forward the idea in ; he suggested that witchcraft had been a pre-Christian German religion that had degenerated into Satanism. Most of the usually elderly victims have been beaten or burnt to death by gangs of youths. In , two Russian farmers killed a woman and injured five other members of her family after believing that they had used folk magic against them. Obviously, if you were tortured you would probably 'confess' to anything to stop the torture.
One of the earliest individuals to do so was the American Matilda Joslyn Gagea writer who was deeply involved in the first-wave feminist movement for women's suffrage.
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How the modern witch was made Before the s, Europeans generally believed in magic. About half of all convicted witches were given sentences short of execution.
Of nearly 1, witches whose cases went to the parlement of Paris on appeal, just over half were men.
Many people believed in 'swimming' witches. As the above accounts suggest, "traditionally, it is women who are accused of witchcraft" Alexander, "'Witches' get police protection".
Before long, a slew of German princes had flipped over to Lutheranism—enough that, bythey were powerful enough to force the Emperor to decriminalize Lutheranism. They also believed that witches could make humans or animals ill or even kill them by magic.
Although they may themselves be accused of witchcraft, it is also generally the nangas who are called upon to point out "suspicious" persons who can be accused as witches: according to one South African police sergeant, "Generally, if people believe there is a witch in their village, they will consult the [witch-doctor].
Among the charges were heresy, witchcraft, and devil-worship.
Witch hunting in india
Who was responsible? The name of this agreement, the Peace of Augsburg, belies its result. As we will see in the modern-day case-studies below, such generalized stress -- including the prevalence of epidemics and natural disasters -- is nearly always central to outbreaks of mass hysteria of this type. They turn to witchcraft to gain riches or to hurt their enemies. I don't believe in witchcraft. Although they might accidentally drown! However, Pope Nicholas I , prohibited the use of torture altogether, and a similar decree may be found in the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals. Copyright-cleared for educational and other non-profit use if source is credited. The Lombard code of states: Let nobody presume to kill a foreign serving maid or female servant as a witch, for it is not possible, nor ought to be believed by Christian minds. France was "a fascinating exception to the wider pattern, for over much of the country witchcraft seems to have had no obvious link with gender at all. Such ritual murders often bring "retribution" against innocents accused of witchcraft. One test for a witch was to prick their body with a blade. The Witchcraft Act of put an end of the traditional form of witchcraft as a legal offense in Britain.
In the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo formerly Zairesome 14, children in the capital, Kinshasa, alone have been accused of sorcery and expelled from their homes; "the unlucky ones are murdered by their own family members before they escape.
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