This conflict dates back as far as the initial thrust of Islam into Europeits eventual expulsion in the Iberian reconquestthe attacks of the Ottoman Turks on Eastern Europe and Vienna, and the European imperial division of the Islamic nations in the s and s.
However, Armenia is included, despite its dominant faith, the Armenian Apostolic Churchbeing a part of Oriental Orthodoxy rather than the Eastern Orthodox Churchand Kazakhstan is also included, despite its dominant faith being Sunni Islam.
Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations.
Russia, Japan, and India are what Huntington terms 'swing civilizations' and may favor either side. Manifestations of what he terms the " Islamic Resurgence " include the Iranian revolution and the first Gulf War. Huntington therefore believes that the rise of China poses one of the most significant problems and the most powerful long-term threat to the West, as Chinese cultural assertion clashes with the American desire for the lack of a regional hegemony in East Asia.Huntington sees Islamic civilization as a potential ally to China, both having more revisionist goals and sharing common conflicts with other civilizations, especially the West. The practice of democracy that has won out in the modern West is largely a result of a consensus that has emerged since the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution , and particularly in the last century or so. Many scholars have emphasized the diversity of Islam and Christianity facets which made impossible any generalized statements concerning those entities. Pretty soon, millions are caught up in a contagion, activating passions they had but dimly perceived just weeks before. The Arab world may modernize on its own separate path. In his view, only Western players and values represented the good side. They get swept up in momentums that have no central authority and that, nonetheless, exercise a sweeping influence on those caught up in their tides. Then the next person moves a step. Culture is important, but underneath cultural differences there are these universal aspirations for dignity, for political systems that listen to, respond to and respect the will of the people. Japan , considered a hybrid of Chinese civilization and older Altaic patterns. Manifestations of what he terms the " Islamic Resurgence " include the Iranian revolution and the first Gulf War.
Huntington also believes that the Anglophone Caribbeanformer British colonies in the Caribbean, constitutes a distinct entity. Huntington refers to countries that are seeking to affiliate with another civilization as "torn countries".
Some people believe that the next step would be a war based on a cultural sense and religion. The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics.Countries with a non-Orthodox majority are usually excluded e. Core state conflicts can arise out of fault line conflicts when core states become involved. Find out more. There are also others which are considered "cleft countries" because they contain very large groups of people identifying with separate civilizations. Huntington captured what the world was like at the end of the Cold War. As a result, interactions across the world are increasing, which intensify "civilization consciousness" and the awareness of differences between civilizations and commonalities within civilizations. Mexico and Russia are also considered to be torn by Huntington. They get swept up in momentums that have no central authority and that, nonetheless, exercise a sweeping influence on those caught up in their tides. The Cold War which lasted over forty years of the Twentieth Century changed the course of the world and in the end, ushered in a new world order. Huntington in his thesis clearly states that the new era of world politics will not be based on conflicts occurring due to ideological or economic clashes amongst states, but rather the dominating source of conflict will be cultural.
The tumult of events can transform the traits and qualities that seemed, even to great experts, etched in stone. They can develop economic, military power and cooperate with other non-Western countries against the West while still preserving their own values and institutions.Perhaps the ultimate example of non-Western modernization is Russia, the core state of the Orthodox civilization. For a century and a half after the emergence of the modern international system with the Peace of Westphalia, the conflicts of the Western world were largely among princes-emperors, absolute monarchs and constitutional monarchs attempting to expand their bureaucracies, their armies, their mercantilist economic strength and, most important, the territory they ruled. A more stable and harmonious world order would have been its outcome. For Harvey et al. They get swept up in momentums that have no central authority and that, nonetheless, exercise a sweeping influence on those caught up in their tides. He argues there is no "Islamic civilization" nor a "Western civilization", and that the evidence for a civilization clash is not convincing, especially when considering relationships such as that between the United States and Saudi Arabia. Identity, ethnicity and religion were the tools used by leaders to motivate and define groups but not the real reasons behind the conflicts. Concerning this region, Huntington departs from Kitsikis contending that a civilizational fault line exists between the two dominant yet differing religions Eastern Orthodoxy and Sunni Islam , hence a dynamic of external conflict. Culture is important, but underneath cultural differences there are these universal aspirations for dignity, for political systems that listen to, respond to and respect the will of the people. Huntington is an extremely well written and insightful book. The world is becoming a smaller place. Opposing concepts[ edit ] In recent years, the theory of Dialogue Among Civilizations , a response to Huntington's Clash of Civilizations, has become the center of some international attention. Huntington refers to countries that are seeking to affiliate with another civilization as "torn countries". Economic regionalism may succeed only when it is rooted in a common civilization. In some ways, each of us is like every person on earth; in some ways, each of us is like the members of our culture and group; and, in some ways, each of us is unique.
Instead, one person moves a step. His thesis makes very little reference to other scholars and offers almost no quantitative empirical data to strengthen the arguments put forward.