How to write a literature review in apa
Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. Here are a few other sections you might want to consider: Current Situation: Information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. The rule I follow is to quote only when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Here are a couple of examples: The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine. The following provides a brief description of the content of each: Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern. Lamb, Sandra E. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for User 1.
The focus of a literature review, however, is to summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of others without adding new contributions. Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects.
Put in only what is necessary. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Or the review might focus on the economic impact of whaling on a community.
Consider whether your sources are current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.
What is a literature review
These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Questions for Further Research: What questions about the field has the review sparked? Then you look up a book written in with information on how sperm whales have been portrayed in other forms of art, such as in Alaskan poetry, in French painting, or on whale bone, as the whale hunters in the late 19th century used to do. The sources support what Falk and Mills are saying. Notice that Falk and Mills do quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field e. Clarify If your assignment is not very specific, seek clarification from your instructor: Roughly how many sources should you include? Be sure to use terminology familiar to your audience; get rid of unnecessary jargon or slang. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor. In the sciences, for instance, treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies. But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.
Upper Saddle River, N. Strategies for writing the literature review Find a focus A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized.
Do they reveal a trend in the field? Berkeley, Calif. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed.
Here are a couple of examples: The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine.
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