How has increasing medicalization in the
The pragmatic approach to assessing medicalization assumes that we are to seek the most adequate, effective and safest ways of addressing specific problems, which is by definition highly sensitive to the context and personal preferences of individuals.
As Carl Elliott explained: To brand a disease is to shape its public perception in order to make it more palatable to patients. Phase 1 is normally done on healthy volunteers, that is people without the disease the medication or device is intended to treat, and is used to test safety.
This enables a critical exploration of variations in medicine in both time and space including the branches of knowledge defined as medical; the different degrees of social control linked to medical knowledge; the players allowed to exercise such control; and the procedures considered appropriate. Mental disability can prevent people from full participation in society. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In the US, in , laws regulating pharmaceutical advertisement became less restrictive which resulted in the expenditure for prescription drugs ads to increase four times between and Murray, [ 27 ]. For instance, the work by Weisz shows that medicine related differently to states, sometimes even at the same time, either in a close relationship e. In the case of anorexia, gender stereotypes and canons of beauty are not without significance. Taking into account the fact that male-pattern hair loss at a certain age is a typical condition, and that it could be promoted as a cause of depression by pharmaceutical industry, one may argue that medicalization of MPHL is a result of unfounded, exaggerated social expectations.
Technology Technology is a driving factor of medicalization for many reasons. The discussion on the medicalization—demedicalization boundary e. In trying to estimate this risk—benefit ratio of medicalizing X, we can refer to the scientific data about efficacy and safety of a specific drug or medical procedure used to treat it, optimally gained from a source unbiased by commercial interests, such as Cochrane Library.
How has increasing medicalization in the
Now, more and more often, diseases and treatments are appearing simultaneously. Some aspects of medicalization are not directly connected to the use of drugs: conceptual and interactional medicalization, for instance Conrad, [ 7 ]. What is lacking in the risk-factor model is that social and economic conditions powerfully shape the capacity to modify or eliminate identified risk factors. In: Cockerham WC ed Medical sociology on the move. Consequently, it seeks to reconsider the ongoing debate of whether or not human conditions and behaviors face demedicalization in Western countries and to open the concept beyond the West, where medicalized behaviors and conditions exist apart from the institutionalization of biomedical control e. Nonetheless, research often focuses on one dominant cause, like that after disease mongering blaming the pharmaceutical industry for selling sickness and pushing medicalisation. How clinicians think and apply knowledge to concrete situations remains intrinsically discretionary and thus only partially controllable Atkinson, ; Timmermans, , see also Kinsella and Pitman, on the Aristotelian concept of phronesis as applied to modern professions. As Foucault [ 10 ] stated in the 's the sovereign-power of death of giving death to people has been replaced by the power of the State to give and improve life: biopower and the welfare State is the main example of this. Despite the fact that there are no precise criteria on that matter, two helpful hints can be proposed.
Would it be still an example of over-medicalization? Nonetheless, the costs for care and assistance for people with mental disabilities has increased with 7. The Link of Medicalization to Social Control The second underlying assumption has to do with reassessing the commonly accepted link of medicalization to social control.
based on 114 review