An overview of the effects of stereotyping

Far less examines the degree to which negative and positive stereotypes have an effect on the quality of life for older adults.

how do stereotypes affect how we see ourselves

Separate groups of children were given directions in an evaluative way and other groups were given directions in a non-evaluative way.

In addition, young and old people alike believe that there is general memory decline across the latter half of the life span Lineweaver and Hertzog, ; Ryan, ; Ryan and Kwong See, With increases in life expectancy as well as reduced infirmity, many adults are aging well, but negative stereotypes of aging may put society at risk for losing the contributions of these vital and knowledgeable people.

Overall, research on changing negative stereotypes about older age has only begun to illuminate the problem. Cohen et al.

Different explanations have been favored—self-stereotype activation versus other stereotype activation— although the behavioral and judgmental effects of activating these stereotypes are quite similar Wheeler and Petty, For those who survive and manage to cope with lifelong prejudice, the experience of aging might be quite different than it is for those who have not faced discrimination.

Second, ingroup members may negotiate with each other, but conclude that they are disagreeing because of categorical differences amongst themselves.


All three groups received the same test. Shapiro, J. They found that high-prejudice participants increased their ratings of the target person on the negative stereotypic dimensions and decreased them on the positive dimension whereas low-prejudice subjects tended in the opposite direction. Across the thin blue line: Police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. For instance, although people may be accurate in reporting their objective age and even use terms that are appropriate for their age group, they may subjectively view themselves as being much younger than that age. This study also showed that it was more beneficial to women for the "gender fair" information to be presented prior to learning rather than after learning. Fiske, S. Participants had been required to write down as many words as they could remember. In a similar vein, when children from poorer families are reminded of their lower socioeconomic status, they underperform on tests described as diagnostic of intellectual abilities — but not otherwise. Other questions with respect to stereotype activation are the degree to which people are or are not aware of having such evaluative attitudes about the elderly, and the effect that such attitudes have on people's thoughts and actions regarding the elderly. The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action. A recent study found that perceived discrimination was associated with less activity in neural regions associated with distress and threat perception and greater activity in neural regions associated with emotion regulation. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. It assesses the strength of association between a target concept e.

Research has not yet addressed how automatic evaluations of the elderly are affected by other variables, such as occupational or other roles, gender, or race. Law students were perceived to be more in favor of euthanasia than students from different departments despite the fact that a pretest had revealed that subjects had no preexisting expectations about attitudes toward euthanasia and the department that students belong to.

A complementary perspective theorizes how stereotypes function as time- and energy-savers that allow people to act more efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms behind the effect of stereotypes is an area ripe for research.

characteristics of stereotypes

Those who reported racial discrimination also reported feeling less control over their lives, more anger, less emotional support, and more negative interactions as well as higher rates of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use than those who did not report racial discrimination Borrell et al.

Barreto, M.

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Stereotype threat